• Raspberry PI Boom! What a useful tiny useful computer.

  • Enter Slide 2 Title Here

  • Enter Slide 3 Title Here

Wednesday, July 30, 2008

Types of Networks

Types of Networks
1. Peer-to-Peer

Computer works as servers and clients in sharing resources and using resources.

Advantages:
a. Easy to set up
b. Inexpensive

c. Additional computers or software packages are not required
d. local cont
rol of resources is maintained by each individual themself.
e. no specific staff is required to maintain the network.
f. each individ
ual computer are not dependent on the functional of central computer.

Disadvanteges:
a. Network security weak and limited to only password protection
b. users might have to remembe
r multiple password for each shared resources.
c. It is difficult and time-consuming to backup data from many different computer.
d. very easily get poor performance if the load of network sharing is too high.
e. There is lack of a central or
ganizational policies and scheme. Each users have to seek by themself for data from each different computer.

2. Server-Based

Provide centralized control of network resources rely on the server computer. The server provide security and network administration.

Advantages:
a. Security is centrally controlled by the server computer.
b. Simplified administration for large numbers of accounts and network.
c. Optimized and faster access to files/ resources.
d. Protecting data through backups are easier.
e. User have to only remember one password to access the network resources.

Disadvantages:
a. The hardware and software of server-based computer are more expensive.
b. Additional and technical administrator stuff required to maintain network.
c. If the server fails, the entire network will unable to function properly.

The IDE/EIDE devices

The IDE/EIDE devices
IDE(Integrated Drive Electronics) is the usual interface for hard drive. Why called IDE, IDE means that the drive has a built-in controller inside itself rather than a separate chip as a part of the motherboard chipset. Integrating the chip into the drive itself leaves manufacturers free to develop the new technology of IDE devices without worrying weather it is compatible with that chipset on certain motherboard. IDE drives are mainly compatible with the ATA (AT attachment) starndad. Which means that we can even install old drive in a new system.

EIDE(Enhanced Integrated Drive Electonics) devices were named because at the time of developing, they supported the ATA-2 standard rather than the original ATA standard. Since then, all IDE devices now fall into this category and the term EIDE is often lost and we can just refer it to IDE devices.

Tuesday, July 29, 2008

File System

File System
There are three basic file systems in windows. They are FAT, FAT32, and NTFS.

FAT (File Allocation Table)
1. FAT system divides sectors of physical disk (eg. hard disk) into allocation units called clusters.
2. FAT is also known as FAT16
3. it has existed in its present from in MS-DOS since version 4.0
4. Maximum size for FAT16 is 2GB.
5. FAT directories can only support filenames of eight characters with a three-character file extension (eg. exe)
6. FAT's attributes is simple - one byte and eight possible attributes.
7. Works well with small partitions that have relatively few files.

FAT32
1. It is the FAT system with 32-bit number internally.
2. It is not designed to operate with fewer than 64K clusters, but can go up to 232 cluster (about 4 billion).
3. FAT32 needs a larger cluster size only when partitions reach 2TB.
4. FAT32 can be used only by windows 2000, Windows98 and Windows95 OEM service release 2.

NTFS (The New Technology File System)
1. It was developed from HPFS (High Performance Filing System) which was introduced in OS/2
2. The major difference with FAT system is that the information about file allocation is not stored at the start of the partition.
3. Provides support for links within the file system.
4. NTFS has the capability to support very large file systems.
5. NTFS security comes in the following four sections:
a. Logon - every user must uniquely identify themselves.
b. Ownership - every resources on the system owned by a user.
c. Permission - resource on system is at the discretion of its owner.
d. Auditing - any permission that has been granted is recorded.
6. NTFS is the only file system that supports local security.

Monday, July 28, 2008

The Registry Hive

The Registry Hive


In windows, registry is the heart. Every action or settings are recorded inside registry. In Microsoft windows, Registry are divided into subtrees. From the root, there are five subtrees (HKEY_LOCAL_MACHINE, HKEY_CURRENT_USER, HKEY_USERS, HKEY_CLASSES_ROOT, and also HKEY_CURRENT_CONFIG).

1. HKEY_LOCAL_MACHINE
keep all settings for the harware currently installed in the machine.

2. HKEY_CURRENT_USER
Keep all settings for the user profile for the person currently logged on to the machine

3. HKEY_USERS
Keeps the DEFAULT profile which describe how windows will behaves when no one is logged on or keeps settings for new created user.

4. HKEY_CLASSES_ROOT
Keeps all the file association information and the OLE(object linking and embedding) registration database.

5. HKEY_CURRENT_CONFIG
Keeps all the hardware configuration at boot-up time.

Major System Files in Windows

Major System Files in Widows.
Make sure this files and programs are there. Else, your windows won't function properly.

1. AUTOEXEC.BAT
This file is used by MS-DOS and other operating system at startup. for this file, it does not have to be present, if it is, the commands in this file will be used when the computer goes through startup process. It contains the instruction lines to run any programs automatically at startup for example, Mouse.com or myprograme.exe. It will run during the boot process and also can be run any other time when you call out autoexec at the MS-DOS prompt. For mordern operating system, IO.SYS are used.

2. BOOT.INI
This is a hidden system file in the root directory of the primary partition. It has the menu which appears each time the PC is started. Like some computer which two operating system, it enable us to choose which is the operating system we want to use. If the user does not react within 30 seconds and the PC will automatically boot to the default OS.BOOT.INI. It can be accessed using notepad but for better way of controlling options for the startup menu is through the System Properties in start> Control Panel.

3. COMMAND.COM
This command-line processor interprets commands from user. We can change any settings or do some of copy and paste, edit, and many more routine from here.

4. CONFIG.SYS
This file is used by MS-DOS with AUTOEXEC.BAT and other operating system at startup. It can only be run during the boot process of PC. It may not be present but if it does, the commands inside this file will be used when the computer goes through the startup process. It normally contains the instructions to load device drivers( for example CD-ROM drive, Sound card driver).

5. IO.SYS
For Windows 9X system, this file replaced the three main DOS files which is MSDOS.SYS, CONFIG.SYS, and alsl AUTOEXEC.BAT. it is then replaced by NTLDR for Windows XP and also Windows 2000. So you won't find this file running under Windows XP and Windows 2000.

6. MSDOS.SYS
This program is the controller for software interaction with MS-DOS kernel. Older system, programes, or games which need the use of MS-DOS to load will need MSDOS.SYS. However, for newer programes or systems, normally they don't need this file to load the programe. This is also one of the files needed to boot MS-DOS.

7. WIN.COM
This files will loads the GUI(Graphic User Interface) for Windows 9X by loading this three files: KRNL32.DLL, GDI.EXE and also USER.EXE. This three file must not be deleted or your computer windows will stop function and need to be formated.

Types of servers - Networking

Types of Servers - Networking

1. File Server
Servers that provide users to stores, retrieve, edit or even delete documents and other files. Data can be easily backed up and protected from a file server.

2. Print Server
Print server is a server with the ability to share the printer connected to it by all network users. Print server provide a central point of controlling printing jobs. It have print queues and are said to spool each individual print job to an actual printer for printing.

3. Communication/ Mail servers
Server which providing email services, messaging, or groupware functions. An example of a communication/ mail servers that run on windows is Microsoft Exchange Server or Lotus Notes.

4. Application Servers
This is a term generically applied to servers that provide access for users to applications. It can be a server which running database server or email program. In some contexts, it might also can be refer to a file server which stores network versions of applications such as Microsoft Office. Everyone on the same network can access and use application that installed in application servers without installing it to their own computer.

Configuring TCP/IP

Configuring TCP/IP - Client side configuration.

IP Address - IP address is unique in a network. Each computer will have different IP address. IP address will somehow look something like this 192.168.1.1.

Subnet mask - This allows Windows to determine the network and host addresses from the IP address. Subnet mask usually have different numbers when a larger network devided into few subnetwork. The default setting for subnet mask on a local network will look something like 255.255.255.0. The 0 at the last number means that the ip address used on network have a unique numbers range from 0 to 254 can be used.

Default gateway - This will be the ip address of the router interface that connects the local network to external netwoks such as the internet. Type in the router ip address and you will be able to surf the internet without any error.

DNS (Domain Name System) - Normally the DNS server from internet will obtain the ip address of a website such as www.google.com to 72.14.235.147 so that the computer knows where to send or retrieve information packets from.

Monday, July 21, 2008

How to setup a IIs server

How To set up a IIS server on computer?


1. First, goto start > control panel > add or remove programs.
(a dialog box like below will show up)

2. Select windows components wizard and then click on the "internet Information Services(IIS) to install it.
3. Click on next and then it will require you to insert windows CD in order to install it on your computer.
















4. Finally, you will see an extra icon on your administrative tools from control panel there. The icon will look something like.

5. Then, your IIS (Internet Information services) like ftp and http can be used already.

Monday, July 14, 2008

Recover data from encrypted ntfs partition

How to recover data from encrypted ntfs(New Technology File System) partition after system format?

Normally, we unable to access a particular folder on a ntfs drive system such as my documents folder. Here, I will show you some trick on how to recover your files which is protected after formatting.

1. Login with administrator equivalent on the operating system.
2. Right click on the drive which the folder you want to recover is inside it.
3. Click on tools tab> backup now. A wizard will get started which you can customize the folder to backup.
4. Now you are able to restore the files you wanted.

Friday, July 11, 2008

Hijackthis

Hijackthis

This is a useful tool to diagnosis a computer especially there is suspicious viruses or spyware in your computer. It can return a result showing that what is running on your computer and from the text file it created, we will able to determine which program is running on your computer. But, remember, do not delete any process which is used by windows. If not, your computer windows will be corrupted. Consult computer expert before you make any decision to delete that suspecius program.


Useful software

Useful Software
Video editing
1. Windows Movie maker
Useful for beginners till Advance.. the graphic user interface is user friendly and easy to work with video editing, enhancing video, adding wording into it and so on...

2. Adobe after effect
Useful for Intermediate to advance user. It have the ability to add some video effect using masking technique. It also can add extra sound or effect such as smoke, haze, or even power shooting effect. Try it out and you will like it.. Able to boost your creativity and editing skills..

3. Ulead video studio
Ulead video studio is a well known editing software. It has the ability to edit a full length video and also adding some effect into it. The rendering of software when you are done editing is good and can produce a high res video and also sound.


Sound editing
1. Adobe audition
Adobe audition is a software you can use for editing music sound. You can even produce your own music using it. It has the layer-type arrangement which can give you the power to record sound layer by layer (just like what those pro usually do in studio). Other than that, you can use to reduce noise, make the sound amplitude higher and many more. You also can use it to make sound for a video and merge it from adobe audition.

2. Sound forge
Sound forge has the power almost same as adobe audition. But it interface is slightly different. Sound forge also a powerful tool which let you edit your sound wav, mp3 and many more.

3. Gold wav
Gold wav slightly same as sound forge and adobe audition, but its functions not as good as sound forge and adobe audition. If you like to make your life simple and only do some simple wav editing, i recommend this.

Graphic editing
1. Adobe Photoshop
Adobe photoshop always use by pro to edit a photo or coloring. You are able to create a extra big photo from adobe photoshop and also a very dense resolution. This enable you to create a very nice photo. Other than that, it also can fix photo easily using the tools provided. If you are curious to add effect into your photo, this is the software.

2. Corel painter
Corel painter can be use to add color to your drawings easily. It is very useful for a artist to color their work nicely and digitally.

Thursday, July 10, 2008

The origins of Javascript (brief)

The origins of Javascript (brief)

JavaScript was originally named LiveScript. It was developed by Netscape. In 1995, LiveScript became a joint venture of Netscape and Sun Microsystems and then its name was changed to Java Script. A language standard for JavaScript was developed by the European Computer Manufacturers Association (ECMA) as ECMA-262 in late 1990s. International Standards Organization (ISO) has also approved this standard. Microsoft's JavaScript is named JScript. The popular browser which is Netscape 7 (NS7) and also Internet Explorer 6 (IE6) at that time both implement languages that conform to ECMA-262. JavaScript official name is called ECMAScript.

Wednesday, July 9, 2008

The Attrib function

The Attrib Function

In the Tutorial on how to kill a pendrive virus, i have found that some of us didn't really understand how the attrib function works. Now in this post, i will describe the use of attrib and shows some sample.

This is what a command prompt will show if we type in : attrib /?
Displays or changes file attributes.

ATTRIB [+R | -R] [+A | -A ] [+S | -S] [+H | -H] [drive:][path][filename]
[/S [/D]]

+ Sets an attribute.
- Clears an attribute.
R Read-only file attribute.
A Archive file attribute.
S System file attribute.
H Hidden file attribute.
[drive:][path][filename]
Specifies a file or files for attrib to process.
/S Processes matching files in the current folder
and all subfolders.
/D Processes folders as well.

Some examples:
1. attrib -s
This will remove the System file attribute on every file in that folder.
2. attrib -s /s
This will remove the System file attribute on each file under each folder or subfolder.
3. attrib +h
This will make all files become hidden as it add the hidden file attribute on each file.
4. attrib +h myprograme.exe
This will add the hidden file attribute on the myprograme.exe only.
5. attrib -s -h -r
This will remove all the System file attribute, Hidden file attribute, and also Read-only file attribute on each file.
6. attrib +s +h
This will add system file attribute and hidden file attribute to each file.

Tuesday, July 8, 2008

How to record an audio from computer without wire

How to convert a movie file type into a music file type

A couple days ago, one of my friend asking me how to convert a movie file to a mp3. Another friend answer: "if you want to convert from a .fla movie file to a .mpeg, or from some other movie format to another, it's possible. But it's not possible to convert a movie file to a music type file such as mp3, wma, wav, or else".. Actually, i have a way to convert it easily.. Here is it:





1. Open up your volume control from the corner of taskbar.
2. It will pop up a dialog box something like this.





3. Goto "options" -> "Properties" -> select "recording" radio button.
4. Press on ok button









5. Select checkbox either on the stereo mixer or mono mixer depend on your own choice.
6. Launch your recording program (eg. Sound Forge, Adobe Audition, Gold Wav or any recording software)
7. Start press record on your program.
8. While recording, start your video which you want to save only the sound of that video.
9. After finish recording, stop your recording from your recording program.
10. That's it.... It's not very hard..

Monday, July 7, 2008

What is TCP and UDP?

What is TCP and UDP?

TCP stands for Transmission Control Protocol. It is a type of method used by computer to send data from a computer to another computer. With this method, two computer can guarantee the data arrived safely and correctly. This type of transferring data tends to be quicker but puts a high load on the computer as it has to monitor the connection and the data going across.

UDP stands for User Datagram Protocol. The computer normally use this type of method to send data packages with hopes that other side will get the data. UDP does not connect directly to the receiving computer like TCP does, but rather sends the data out and relies on the devices in between the sending computer and receiving computer to get the data by itself. By using this type of transmission, it is not guarantee that the data will reach its destination. On the other hand, this method has a very low overhead and it is very useful for services that are not that important to work on.

Saturday, July 5, 2008

Convert ppt to jpeg

Convert ppt to graphic file
This tutorial will show you how easily you can convert your power point presentation file into a graphic file.

1. Create a power point file and press the 'save as' from the 'file' drop down menu.
2. Type in filename as you like and select the 'save as type' drop down menu and select the graphic file format you want to save. There are a few types of graphic format you can save into:
a) GIF (Graphics Interchange Format)
b) JPEG (File Interchange format)
c) PNG (Portable Network Graphics Format)
d) TIFF (Tag Image File Format)
e) Device Independent Bitmap
f) Windows metafile
and so on...

To connect to a mysql database from php

Connect to a mysql database from php
for beginners

//Define variable//
//starting by assigning the address of server, username, and also password
//"127.0.0.1" or "localhost" means that mysql database is installed on the machine where it will connected by php.
$servername = "127.0.0.1";

//the default username for mysql database server is "root".
$username = "root";

//the default password for mysql database is "".
$password = "";

// Declare connection //
//use mysql_connect to make a connection to the mysql server
$dbconnect = mysql_connect($servername,$username,$password);

//test if $dbconnect return successful connection.
if (!$dbconnect){
print "There are some error connecting to database";
}

//select the database which you want to use. Here, i'll illustrate database selection named mydatabase.
$select = mysql_select_db("mydatabase");

//test if $select for database return successful selection.
if (!$select){
print mysql_error()."
\n";
}

Another way is to create a function call "connectit()" which can be access anytime from any page. Remember to define the variable $servername, $username, and $password in order to use the connectit() function.

function connectit(){
//connect to mydatabase
global $servername, $username, $password;
$dbconnect = mysql_connect($servername, $username, $password);
if (!$dbconnect){
print "there are some problem connecting to database...";
}
$select = mysql_select_db("mydatabase");
if (!$select){
print mysql_error()."
\n";
}
return $dbconnect;
}

mysql_close() is adviseable to be used to close a connection at the last action after connected to mysql database. eg.
mysql_close($dbconnect);

Thursday, July 3, 2008

Simple tricks to free up your ram

Very Simple tricks to free up your ram..
by unload some startup programs


Sometimes, we feel that the computer starts getting slower, there are several possibilities. One of them is the computer is running too many programs. "I didn't run any program".. is normally people will answer. Why it happen? it is because you have installed lots of programs.. So how to solve that problem? Here are some simple steps...



1. First, open up run from start menu..
2. Type in 'msconfig' into the text box. (As shown in the picture on the right)





3. A dialog box will appear and there will be 7 tabs on it (general, system.ini, win.ini, boot.ini, services, startup, and tools.
4. Select the startup tabs.





5. Click on the 'Disable all' button below and click on apply.
6. Then, Click on ok.




7. A dialog box will popup (Something like the right picture), asking weathere you are going to restart now or later. Just click restart now and your computer will reboot.
8. This time, your startup program should be fewer, and along with this, you will have more extra memory to use for other programs. Your computer will then run faster..
9. After reboot, a dialog box name "System configuration Utility" will pop up and give you a notice about you've change your startup settings. Just click on "Don't show this message or launch the windows system configuration utility when widows start" and press ok.
10. That's it..

Wednesday, July 2, 2008

Wow, i saw another RSS/XML button

Yet another RSS/XML button

I think we all would first wondering what RSS can do? and should we use it?Here's some comment and information about RSS.

1. RSS is Really Simple Syndication.

2. RSS is a family of web feed. It helps us to collect data we want from a few certain web site.

3. We can organize our RSS with feed readers.

4. Some popular feed readers include :
a) Amphetadesk for Windows, Linux, Mac
b) FeedReader for Windows
c) NewsGator for Windows and integrates with Outlook

5. There are also web-based feed readers available for us:
a) My Yahoo
b) Bloglines
c) Google Reader

6. Why we should use it?
a) there are free feed readers available
b) easily stay informed with information we want to know
c) safe time from browsing through pages from a web site.
d) ensure your own privacy by protect a web to directly trace you as reader

Tuesday, July 1, 2008

Ways to process result set in php mysql

3 ways we can use to run a so-called 'mysql loop' to retrieve data from results in mysql database.

1. mysql_fetch_row()
2. mysql_fetch_assoc()
3. mysql_fetch_object()

Example:
1. mysql_fetch_row()

if (mysql_num_rows($result)>0){
while($row = mysql_fetch_row($result)){
echo $row[0]. "\n";
}

}


2. mysql_fetch_assoc()

if (mysql_num_rows($result)>0){
while($row = mysql_fetch_assoc($result)){
echo $row['item_name']."\n";
}
}


3. mysql_fetch_object()

if (mysql_num_rows($result)>0){
while($row = mysql_fetch_object($result)){
echo $row->itemName."\n";
}
}

Take a deep break, Delicious, Yummy..

Tea time at Chatz Brasserie - Parkroyal Kuala Lumpur hotel

Tire of doing programming stuff, lets have some tea time here... delicious buffet style...


Some Delicious Cake..

Colorful...

Sweet...
plus ice-cream

not forgetting..

and also

emmm... Yummy

Enough with pendrive /thumbdrive virus!!

Ten steps to say goodbye to Pendrive Virus!!

Most of us nowadays face with tons of viruses. One of them is a pendrive or thumbdrive virus. Pendrive or thumbdrive virus will not actually duplicate itself into your computer on the first time you plug in the usb port. It is the time you double click on the drive you see on your 'my computer'. I normally will delete that virus myself because a antivirus are not 100% guarantee will help you remove that virus. Things to be do when you plug in a usb pendrive.


1. Goto 'start' and then 'run'.
2. Type in cmd in the box and click run.




3. Type in: cd\
4. Type in the drive name with (:) then press enter eg. f:
(You will see something like the picture on the right hand side.)


5. Type in attrib ( to see if any hidden or hidden system file).
* pendrive virus normally come with the autorun.inf and also the virus installer itself. The attribute of both file will be hidden or hidden system so that you cannot see it when open from 'my computer'.
6. Check for the word ' S H ' or 'S H R' in front. * that will probably is the virus file.

7. Unhide it with this command: attrib -s -h -r *.* (then enter)
8. Delete the virus file with its name such as: del *.inf
* it is to delete the autorun.inf which will launch the virus something.exe to install quietly when you double click the drive from "my computer".

9. If you are very sure about the virus name, just type in this command: del something.exe (then enter).
* it will delete the virus name something.exe.
10. Be sure to eject your pendrive and reconnect it again before you open your files on that pendrive.

My very First blog

This is my first blog and what i'm going to write in this blog will be about computer stuff.. or maybe some musical stuff too. Programming is not my job, it's just because i love computer stuff especially on programming. :-)